Eleven twelfths through the year. 2019 on the horizon. Surely a time to reflect, take stock and get the Brussel sprouts on. You can never be too prepared.
Anyway, Christmas preps. are well advanced at Garden House, with wreath-making courses underway. Mountains of foliage, berries and flower heads are spread out ready for craft action. Here’s one she made earlier….
It’s a beaut.
It’s a good time to take a look at the multitude of roses in the garden, now that their frameworks can be seen more easily. There are many types of rose here – shrub, ramblers, climbers – and it’s useful to know a little about each. As part of the programme of Garden House events, Simon White, from Peter Beales Roses in Norfolk, recently came to give a talk on the subject. Apparently, he was inspirational. Pruners and secateurs at the ready, then.
(Special thanks to Peter Beales Roses for permission to reproduce these wonderful images of roses from their website)
Roses like rich, loamy soils which are deep and well-drained – they tend to do well on clay. Adding a lot of decayed organic matter when planting gives them a great start. They like to be planted deeply. When growing roses, watering, feeding and air circulation are of vital importance, and in hot weather they can need watering up to twice a day. Mulch and feed in the spring. During the growing season, feeding should be carried out every couple of weeks with a rose feed such as Uncle Tom’s Rose Tonic.
Have long, whippy growth and (guess what?) they ramble – far and wide. Their stems are long and lax and they usually flower only once in the year, normally around June, on old wood from the previous season. They produce masses of smallish flowers in bunches. Often (but not always) they are single-flowered and tend to be rather wild-looking. They produce lovely autumnal hips which are attractive in themselves and to wildlife. Examples are: Rosa ‘Rambling Rector’; R. ‘Alberic Barbier’; R. ‘Albertine’; R. filipes ‘Kiftsgate’; R. ‘Francis Lester’; R. ‘American Pillar’. Very useful for covering unsightly buildings, strong arches, pergolas or for growing into trees.
Pruning: Ramblers can be pruned between now and February – remember to enjoy the hips before you decide to cut. Take out dead and damaged growth. Remove the oldest fattest, thickest stems to promote new growth. The long, new, flexible branches should not be cut. Remove stems that have flowered and tie in new ones. Shorten side shoots by two-thirds.
R. ‘American Pillar’
These are repeat-flowering, and flower on new wood grown that season. Their flowers tend to be larger and more shapely than those of ramblers – and they have stiffer stems. Best if grown against a wall (using wires to secure them) or an arch. Clematis is a good companion planting as it can use the rose to clamber upwards. Examples are Rosa ‘Compassion’; R.’Dublin Bay’; R.’Aloha’.
Pruning: Climbers are generally pruned between December and February. Remove dead and diseased wood and cut out any old branches from the base. Tie in new shoots and train horizontally to encourage new growth. Prune flowered side shoots by two-thirds.
The range of shrub roses is huge – from old and modern to species and groundcover. They generally flower on older wood. These are wonderful for growing in garden borders. Good examples are: Rosa ‘Madame Isaac Pereire’ – said to have possibly the best fragrance of all roses; R.’Cecile Brunner’; R. ‘Gertrude Jekyll’.
Pruning: Dependent on the type of shrub rose. Most require only light pruning, in late winter (February). Remove dead and diseased wood. Repeat-flowering shrub roses should be cut back by about one-third. Some of the older stems on mature plants can be cut back to the base.
Rosa ‘Mme Isaac Pereire’
Roses with a good display of hips:
Some of the best must surely be the rugosa roses. Late single, fragrant flowers contrast with large red hips. They are as tough as old boots and notably good in coastal areas. Impressive as windbreaks and hedges too. But watch out for the prickles. Others are Rosa moyesii ‘Geranium’; R. pimpinellifolia.
Rosa rugosa Alba
Rosa moyesii ‘Geranium’
This week it’s all about conifers. A boon in the winter garden – and very much coming back into fashion, after a lengthy period out in the cold. As it were. At Great Dixter, the family home of the late, great Christopher Lloyd, conifers in pots stand sentry in the porch entrance at the front of the house. And at Bressingham Gardens in Norfolk, conifers reveal the particular glory they can bring to a winter garden.
The yew has been described as our most venerable native tree, and very old specimens can often be found on church grounds in this country. It is long-lived and hardy, and responds well to hard clipping and shaping, so it has long been a favourite with garden designers who often use it for topiary, or to create impressive hedging and “garden rooms”. An evergreen conifer, its distinctive, needle-shaped leaves grow in rows along the sides of twigs. Yew is dioecious, meaning that male and female flowers grow on separate trees. Unlike many other conifers, its seeds are not held in cones, they are contained in “arils” – the small red berry-like fruits which are open at one end. All parts of the tree are poisonous except for these fleshy fruits – but beware!, the seed inside them is highly toxic! The taxanes in yew are extracted from summer clippings and converted into the anti-cancer drug Taxotere, used in chemotherapy.
Cedrus atlantica Glauca Group
The blue Atlas cedar is a large evergreen with silvery blue/green needles and large brown/purple upright cones. It gets BIG – over 12m high and 8m wide, so only opt for this if you have an estate, as opposed to live on one. Other, smaller varieties of cedar are available – for instance the little weeping tree C. atlantica ‘Glauca Pendula’, which can be grown in a pot.
This “fluffy” looking conifer, with reddish-brown bark, is also known as the Japanese cedar. It changes colour as the season progresses and has distinctive, horizontal branches. This one gets big! When buying conifers, it is important to ensure that you bear in mind the size of your garden
Juniperus squamata ‘Blue Star’
Junipers come in a wide range of types, from erect, like ‘Skyrocket’ (it does what it says on the tin) – to prostrate, which are especially good for ground cover. This particular variety is a compact, dwarf, evergreen shrub with attractive blue-grey foliage. Grows in pretty well any kind of soil and will tolerate most conditions, including hot sunny sites. At around 0.4m high x 1m wide, it’s good as ground cover and also in rockeries; it needs very little in the way of pruning. Has an A.G.M. too. Sounds perfect. Buy several.
Who would have thought that this is, in fact, a conifer? And a deciduous conifer too. Ginkgos have been around since the Jurassic period (though not in this particular garden!) Their fan-shaped leaves turn a wonderful butter yellow in the autumn and they have fleshy, edible seeds.
Jobs for the week:
The war against the squirrels continues. Our seasonal weapon of choice is holly; let’s see how Squirrel Nutkin deals with this little lot.
It’s time to wrap up any tender plants being left outdoors
Hand-made jackets for tender tibouchinas and salvias; winter protection guaranteed. And service with a smile!
Prune rambling rose in tree outside Garden Room
Careful now. Watch those pruners. And hang on to some hardwood cuttings for propagation, please.
Weed path to Garden Room: to infinity and beyond!
Sharp edges! Looking good. And the lawn got edged too.
Work wonders on winter bed
Prune Rosa Charles de Mills
If the stems are pruned back at different heights, the roses can be seen and enjoyed more easily. No pressure then, ladies.
Prune blueberries and plant in metal tanks
(Did anyone remind them that blueberries need to be in ericaceous soil?)
Fully galvanised. Lovely
Prick out the seedlings in the greenhouse
Plant tulip bulbs in Paul’s bed
What, more tulips?
Prettify the pumpkin panorama
Plant Dutch irises in archway bed
….. and decorate pots with Cornus stems
which will add height and interest to the pots as we await their spring display
Clearly pleased with progress.
Prune roses under the arches
There must be a lot of plants needing labels
Such diligent workers everywhere; all working under the blue skies over Garden House
The sun shines on the righteous